Dr Calvin Ho
CENTRE FOR MEDICAL ETHICS AND LAW
Director, Centre for Medical Ethics and Law
JSD, LLM, MSc, LLB (Hons), BSc (Hons), Dip (Statistics), Advocate & Solicitor (Singapore), Solicitor (England & Wales)
Dr Calvin Ho’s research focusses on the explication of the normative (i.e. legal and ethical) and social implications of health and biotechnologies, as well as the responses to these concerns through policy and regulatory governance. His research also includes medical law and ethics, and the normative aspects of health systems (especially on health insurance and access to health) and global health.
Dr Ho holds a doctorate in juridical science from Cornell University (New York), and was also trained in law at the National University of Singapore (NUS) and the University of Cambridge (England). In addition, he read sociology and economics at the London School of Economics and Political Science, and at the School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London). Dr Ho is qualified as Advocate & Solicitor of the Supreme Court of Singapore, and as Solicitor of the Senior Courts of England and Wales. He has practiced law in London and Singapore with Messrs Linklaters Allen & Gledhill, and has served as a medicolegal expert advisor to the Medical Protection Society (MPS). Dr Ho is currently an Ethics Board member of Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), Co-Head of the Accountability Policy Task Team of the Global Alliance for Genomics & Health; and a research affiliate with the Ethox Centre, University of Oxford.
Prior to joining HKU, Dr Ho was Assistant Professor at the Centre for Biomedical Ethics at the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, NUS; Co-Head of the WHO Collaborating Centre on Bioethics in Singapore; and Editor-in-Chief of the Asian Bioethics Review. Additionally, he has served as a statutory board member of the Singapore Nursing Board, the Legal Aid Bureau of the Ministry of Law of Singapore, as well as on national advisory committees on transplantation and on genetic testing of the Ministry of Health of Singapore.
- Biomedical Law & Ethics
- Regulatory Governance
- Artificial Intelligence
- Data Science
- Comparative Law
Peer-Reviewed Books and Monographs
International and National Guidelines and Policies
Policy Papers and Reports
Eugenia Olliaro, Piero Olliaro, Calvin Ho, Raffaella Ravinetto, “Legal Uncertainty – The Gray Area around Substandard Medicines: Where Public Health Meets Law”, American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene (2019) https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0645
The Brussels Collaboration on Bodily Integrity, “Medically Unnecessary Genital Cutting and the Rights of the Child: Moving Toward Consensus”, American Journal of Bioethics (2019) 19(10):17-28. https://doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2019.1643945
Calvin Ho, Katharine Wright, Karel Caals. “Involving Families and Children in Online Research”, American Journal of Bioethics (2019) 19(6):68-71. https://doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2019.1602184
Calvin Ho, Derek Soon, Karel Caals, Jeevesh Kapur, “Governance of automated image analysis and artificial intelligence analytics in healthcare”, Clinical Radiology (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2019.02.005
Andrea Boggio and Calvin Ho, “The Human Right to Science and Foundational Technologies”, American Journal of Bioethics (2018) 18,12: 69-71. https://doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2018.1531173
Calvin Ho, Karel Caals and Benjamin Png, “Just Ethics? Bioethical Prescriptions for Policymakers Should Remain Communal”, American Journal of Bioethics (2018) 18,11: 63-65. https://doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2018.1523497
Claire Lajaunie and Calvin Ho, “Pathogens collections, biobanks and related-data in a One Health legal and ethical perspective”, Parasitology (2018) 145,5: 688-696. https://doi:10.1017/S0031182017001986.
Peter Novitzky, Cynthia Goh and Calvin Ho, “Caring about Meatballs, Autonomy, and Human Dignity: Neuroethics and the Boundaries of Decision Making Among Persons with Dementia”, AJOB Neuroscience (2018) 9,2: 96-106. https://doi.org/10.1080/21507740.2018.1466838
Tuck-Wai Chan and Calvin Ho, “A Ten-Year Retrospective Analysis of Consent for the Donation of Residual Human Tissue in Singapore Healthcare Institution: Reflections on Governance”, Asian Bioethics Review (2017) 9,4: 335-351. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41649-017-0040-x.
Calvin Ho, “CIOMS guidelines remain conservative about vulnerability and social justice”, Indian Journal of Medical Ethics (July-September 2017) 2,3 NS: 175-9. https://doi.org/10.20529/IJME.2017.061
Don Chalmers, Dianne Nicol, Jane Kaye, Jessica Bell, Alastair Campbell, Calvin Ho, Kazuto Kato, Jusaku Minari, Chih-hsing Ho, Colin Mitchell, Fruzsina Molnár-Gábor, Margaret Otlowski, Daniel Thiel, Stephanie M Fullerton and Tess Whitton, “Has the biobank bubble burst? Withstanding the challenges for sustainable biobanking in the digital era”, BMC Medical Ethics (2016) 17: 39 https://doi.org/0.1186/s12910-016-0124-2.
Ivan SK Thong, Meng Yee Foo, Min Yi Sum, Benjamin Capps, Tih-Shih Lee, Calvin Ho and Kang Sim, “Therapeutic Misconception in Psychiatry Research: A Systematic Review”, Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience (2016) 14,1: 17-25.
Johannes JM van Delden and Calvin Ho, “Vulnerability in Healthcare and Research Involving Children”, Asian Bioethics Review (June 2015) 7,2: 115-125.
Calvin Ho, Andreas Reis and Abha Saxena, “Vulnerability in International Policy Discussion on Research involving Children”, Asian Bioethics Review (June 2015) 7,2: 230-249.
Kelvin Bryan Tan, Woan Shin Tan, Marcel Bilger and Calvin Ho, “Monitoring and Evaluating Progress towards Universal Health Coverage in Singapore”, PLOS Medicine (2014) 11, 9: e1001695.
Calvin Ho, “Ethical Responsibility to Manage Incidental Findings in Brain Imaging Research”, Asia-Pacific Biotech News Journal (2014) 18,6: 37-40.
Go Yoshizawa, Calvin Ho, Wei Zhu, Chingli Hu, Yoni Syukriani, Ilhak Lee, Hannah Kim, Daniel Tsai, Jusaku Minari and Kazuto Kato, “ELSI practices in genomic research in East Asia: implications for research collaboration and public participation”, Genome Medicine (2014) 6: 39.
Calvin Ho, Leonardo D De Castro and Alastair V Campbell, “Governance of Biomedical Research in Singapore and the Challenge of Conflicts of Interest”, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics (2014) 23,3: 288-296.
Calvin Ho, “The Equity of Universal Health Coverage: Some Reflections from Singapore”, Brookings East Asia Commentary Series (December 2013) 69. Reprinted by Global Studies Institute in Hong Kong in February 2014, and further reprinted for the Meeting of Commonwealth Health Ministers on 18 May 2014 in Geneva, Switzerland, as: The Commonwealth, Commonwealth Health Partnerships 2014. Cambridge: Nexus Strategic Partnerships, 2014, pp. 44‐47. Available at: https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/the-equity-of-universal-health-coverage-some-reflections-from-singapore/
Calvin Ho and Klaus M Leisinger, “Intellectual Property and Access to Essential Medicines: A Tenuous Link?”, (2013) Asian Bioethics Review 5,4: 376‐382. 10.1353/asb.2013.0060
Calvin Ho, “Corporate Social Responsibility of the Pharmaceutical Industry in Solidaristic Terms”, (2013) Asia‐Pacific Biotech News Journal 17,6: 49‐52.
Calvin Ho, “Covert Treatment of a Potentially Violent Patient”, (2013) Asian Bioethics Review 5,3: 203‐211.
Calvin Ho, “Enhancement (of What?) in Aesthetic Medicine”, (2012) Asian Bioethics Review 4,4: 272‐282.
Jacqueline Chin, Calvin Ho, Hitoshi Arima, Reina Ozeki, Dae‐Seog Heo, Michael K Gusmano and Nancy Berlinger, “Integration of palliative and supportive cancer care in Asia”, (2012) The Lancet Oncology 13:445‐446.
Calvin Ho, “Conflicts of Interest in Biomedical Research”, (2012) Asia‐Pacific Biotech News Journal 16, 4: 34‐ 36.
Marie‐Charlotte Bouësseau, Andreas Reis and Calvin Ho, “Global Summit of National Ethics Committees: an essential tool for international dialogue and consensus‐building”, Indian Journal of Medical Ethics (July‐September 2011) VIII,3: 154‐157.
Calvin Ho, “Governance Framework for Biomedical Research in Singapore: A Risk‐Based Account”, (2011) Asia‐Pacific Biotech News Journal 15, 5: 13‐17.
Calvin Ho, “Safeguarding the Integrity of Scientific Research – Build a Maison à Colombage”, Singapore Academy of Law Journal (2010) 22: 994‐1022.
Calvin Ho, Benjamin Capps and Voo Teck Chuan, “Stem Cell Science and its Public: The Case of Singapore”, East Asian Science, Technology and Society (2010) 4: 7‐29.
Calvin Ho, “Utilitarianism and Patents: Justification and Change”, Asian Bioethics Review (2010) 2,3: 202‐217.
Calvin Ho, Juridification in Bioethics: Governance of Human Pluripotent Cell Research. London: Imperial College Press, 2016.
Jacqueline Chin, Nancy Berlinger, Michael C Dunn, Calvin Ho, Michael K Gusmano (eds.) Making Difficult Decisions with Patients and Families: A Singapore Casebook. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 2014. Available at: http://www.bioethicscasebook.sg
(i) Calvin Ho, Making decisions in the Neonatal ICU. Available at: http://www.bioethicscasebook.sg/case/arun/
(ii) Calvin Ho, When parents seek alternative treatments. Available at: http://www.bioethicscasebook.sg/case/lina/
(iii) Calvin Ho, Covert Testing. Available at: http://www.bioethicscasebook.sg/case/khoo/
(iv) Calvin Ho, The Right to Medical Privacy and Confidentiality. Available at: http://www.bioethicscasebook.sg/case/mendez/
(v) Nancy Berlinger and Calvin Ho, Impaired decision-making capacity: Two questions and four possibilities. Available at: http://www.bioethicscasebook.sg/case/shi/
(vi) Nicola S Peart and Calvin Ho, Decisions on the care of an adult who has lost decision-making capacity. Available at: http://www.bioethicscasebook.sg/case/yung/
(vii) Calvin Ho and Peter Loke, An overview of key aspects of Singapore medical law. Available at: http://www.bioethicscasebook.sg/backgrounder/an-overview-of-key-aspects-in-singapore-medical-law/
(viii) Sumytra Menon and Calvin Ho, The Mental Capacity Act (Singapore) on aspects of medical decision-making for adults lacking the capacity to consent. Available at: http://www.bioethicscasebook.sg/backgrounder/medical-decisionmaking/
Terry SH Kaan and Calvin Ho (eds.), Genetic Privacy: An Evaluation of the Ethical and Legal Landscape. London: Imperial College Press, 2013
John Michael Elliott, Calvin Ho and Sylvia SN Lim (eds.), Bioethics in Singapore: The Ethical Microcosm. Singapore: World Scientific, 2010
Calvin Ho and Sharon Kaur, “Parental Rights, Best Interests and Significant Harms: Singapore and Malaysia perspectives on Medical Decision-Making on Behalf of Children”. In: Imogen Goold, Jonathan Herring, Cressida Auckland (eds) Medical Decision-Making on Behalf of Young Children: A Comparative Perspective. Hart Publishing, 2020 (Forthcoming).
Calvin Ho, “The Regulation of Human Germline Genome Modification in Singapore”, In: Andrea Boggio, Cesare Romano, Jessica Almqvist (eds) Human Germline Genome Modification and the Right to Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, pp 516-540. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108759083.020
Calvin Ho, “Legal Governance of Genome-Editing Technologies for Human Gene and Cell Therapies in Singapore”, In: Taupitz J., Deuring S. (eds) Rechtliche Aspekte der Genom-Editierung an der menschlichen Keimbahn. Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Deutsches, Europäisches und Internationales Medizinrecht, Gesundheitsrecht und Bioethik der Universitäten Heidelberg und Mannheim, vol 47. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2020, pp 363-388. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-59028-7_17
Calvin Ho, “Comparative Law and Co-opetition in Regulatory Norms Formation Pertaining to Human Genetic Modification and Re-Programming”, In Susanne Müller and Henning Rosenau (eds), Stammzellen – iPS-Zellen – Genomeditierung [Stem Cells – iPS Cells – Genome Editing]. Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2018, pp 87-108. ISBN 978-3-8487-4980-5
Calvin Ho, “Universal health coverage in Singapore: An ethical reflection”, In The Commonwealth, Commonwealth Health Partnerships 2015. Cambridge: Nexus Strategic Partnerships, 2015, pp. 118-21. This publication was prepared for the Commonwealth Health Ministers Meeting in May 2015 in Geneva, which took place before the World Health Assembly.
Calvin Ho and Karel Caals. “Responsibility and Solidarity in Universal Health Coverage: Achieving Lifetime Insurance Coverage in Singapore”, In Lutz Bergemann, Andreas Reis and Andreas Frewer (eds.), Global Ethics and Universal Health Coverage – Human Rights in Practice. Würzburg: Koenigshausen & Neumann, 2016, pp. 45‐65. (This chapter is a revised and updated version of the chapter published in 2014.)
Calvin Ho, “The Equity of Universal Health Coverage: Some Reflections from Singapore”, In The Commonwealth, Commonwealth Health Partnerships 2014. Cambridge: Nexus Strategic Partnerships, 2014, pp. 44‐47.
Calvin Ho and See Muah Lee, “Law and Morality”, In Henk ten Have (ed.), Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics. Dordrecht: Springer, 2015, pp.1‐10; DOI 10.1007/978‐3‐319‐05544‐2_264‐1.
Calvin Ho. “A Response to the ‘Dementia Epidemic’ in Singapore: Rendering Visible the Caregiver in Universal Health Coverage”, In Andreas Frewer, Lutz Bergemann, Martina Schmidhuber (eds.), Demenz und Ethik in der Medizin: Standards zur guten klinischen Praxis? [Dementia and Ethics in Medicine: Standards for Good Clinical Practice]. Würzburg: Koenigshausen & Neumann, 2015, pp. 243‐255
Calvin Ho and Karel Caals, “Responsibility and Solidarity in Universal Health Coverage: Achieving Lifetime Insurance Coverage in Singapore”, In Andreas Frewer, Andreas Reis and Lutz Bergemann (eds.), Gute oder vergütete Behandlung? Ethische Fragen der Gesundheitsökonomie [Good or Paid Treatment? Ethical Questions of Healthcare Economics]. Würzburg: Koenigshausen & Neumann, 2014, pp. 303‐323.
Calvin Ho, Jacqueline Chin and Alastair Campbell, “Singapore”, In Henk AMJ ten Have, Gordijn B (eds.), Handbook of Global Bioethics. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014, pp. 1427‐1450.
Calvin Ho and Terry Kaan, “The Notion of Genetic Privacy”, In Terry SH Kaan and Calvin WL Ho (eds.), Genetic Privacy: An Evaluation of the Ethical and Legal Landscape. London: Imperial College Press, 2013, pp. 1‐24.
Calvin Ho, “Navigating the Privacy Complex of Self, Other and Relationality”, In Terry SH Kaan and Calvin WL Ho (eds.), Genetic Privacy: An Evaluation of the Ethical and Legal Landscape. London: Imperial College Press, 2013, pp. 41‐75.
Calvin Ho and Sylvia Lim, “The Coming of Bioethics to Singapore”, In JM Elliott, WC Ho and SSN Lim (eds.), Bioethics in Singapore: The Ethical Microcosm. Singapore: World Scientific, 2010, pp. 1-29.
Calvin Ho and Martin Bobrow, “Norm-making on Human-Animal Chimeras and Hybrids in Singapore, the United Kingdom and the International Domain”, In JM Elliott, WC Ho and SSN Lim (eds.), Bioethics in Singapore: The Ethical Microcosm. Singapore: World Scientific, 2010, pp. 187-234.
Calvin Ho, “Governing Cloning: United Nations’ Debates and the Institutional Context of Standards”, In B Capps and A Campbell (eds.), Contested Cells: Global Perspectives on the Stem Cell Debate. London: Imperial College Press, 2010, pp. 121-154.
Contributed to research, drafting and review.
World Health Organization. Ethical Considerations for Health Policy and Systems Research, 2019. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/330033/9789241516921-eng.pdf?ua=1
Ministry of Health, Singapore. Code of Practice on the Standards for the Provision of Clinical Genetic/Genomic Testing Services and Clinical Laboratory Genetic/Genomic Testing Services. Available at: https://elis.moh.gov.sg/elis/publishInfo.do?task=download&pkId=295
Singapore Nursing Board. Code for Nurses and Midwives, 2018. Available at: http://www.healthprofessionals.gov.sg/docs/librariesprovider4/publications/code-for-nurses-and-midwives-april-2018.pdf
World Health Organization. WHO guidelines on ethical issues in public health surveillance. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2017. Available at: http://www.who.int/ethics/publications/public-healthsurveillance/en/
Global Alliance for Genomics & Health, Accountability Policy, 2016. Available at: https://www.ga4gh.org/content/uploads/Accountability_Policy_FINAL_v1_Feb10.pdf
Contributed to the research, drafting and/or review.
Calvin Ho, Overview of the regulatory framework for biomedical research involving legal minors in Singapore, (October) 2016. Available at: http://nuffieldbioethics.org/content/uploads/Research-with-children-ethical-challenges-around-the-world_web.pdf
Anita K Wagner, Dennis Ross‐Degnan, Calvin Ho, Murray Aitken, Raja Shankar, Maya Malarski, Quinn Kiefer. IMPACT: Facilitating Shared Learning and Collaborative Action Research to Improve Cancer Care. Parsippany NJ: IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics, (June) 2016. Available at: https://www.iqvia.com/-/media/iqvia/pdfs/institute-reports/impact-facilitating-shared-learning-and-collaborative-action-research.pdf?la=en&hash=09D8D626CAA11B6C0C1C294C1A6F9FDF865C9618
World Health Organization (Global network of WHO Collaborating Centres for Bioethics). Global Health Ethics: Key Issues. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2015. Available at: http://www.who.int/ethics/publications/global-health-ethics/en/
Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Children and clinical research: ethical issues. London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics: May 2015. Invited as commentator and reviewer. Available at: http://nuffieldbioethics.org/project/children-research
Bioethics Advisory Committee. Ethics Guidelines for Human Biomedical Research. Singapore: Bioethics Advisory Committee, 2015. Researched and contributed to initial drafting of the Guidelines. Available at: http://www.bioethics-singapore.org/index/publications/reports/86-reports/ethics-guidelines-for-human-biomedical-research.html
Maryam Bigdeli, David Peters and Anita Wagner (eds.), Medicines in Health Systems – Advancing access, affordability and appropriate use. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2014:
(i) Anita Wagner, Veronika Wirtz, Maryam Bigdeli, Calvin Ho, Dennis Ross-Degnan, “The Role of Medicines in Achieving Universal Health Coverage”, pp. 43-58; and
(ii) Anita Wagner, Maryam Bigdeli, Anthony So, Andreas Seiter, Calvin Ho, “Innovation to ensure better access to medicines”, pp. 61-73.
Report available at: http://www.who.int/alliance-hpsr/resources/FR_webfinal_v1.pdf
World Health Organization, Making fair choices on the path to universal health coverage. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2014. Invited as a commentator. Available at: http://www.who.int/choice/documents/making_fair_choices/en/
Calvin Ho, Katherine Wright, Christine Grady, Hugh Whittall, Julius Ecuru, Michel Daher, “Research Involving Vulnerable Populations, with a focus on Children”. In National Bioethics Commission of Mexico (ed.), Finding Paths Through the World: 10th Global Summit of National Ethics/Bioethics Committees. Mexico City: National Bioethics Commission of Mexico, 2014, pp. 68-85.
Thalia Arawi, Mondher Letaief, Sameen Siddiqi, Calvin Ho. Medical Malpractice and Patient Safety: Exploring Uncharted Territory in Eastern Mediterranean Region. 2014. The research and report was commissioned by the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of the World Health Organization.
Calvin Ho and Sumytra Menon. Legal and Regulatory Considerations of Neuroscientific Research in Singapore. September 2014. (Position Paper submitted on invitation from the Bioethics Advisory Committee, Singapore, to assist it in the formulation of policy recommendations on neuroscience research.)
Bioethics Advisory Committee, Human-Animal Combinations in Stem Cell Research, September 2010. Researched and contributed to drafting of the Final Report. Available at: http://www.bioethics-singapore.org/index/publications/reports/86-reports/167-human-animal-combinations-in-stem-cell-research.html